To Live in the Heart (and Mind) of Others. The Construction of Memory in Northern Irish Commemorative Plaques
Laura Filardo Llamas (University of Valladolid)
Volume 5, Issue 1
Contemporary post-Agreement Northern Ireland seems to be characterised by the spectre of commemoration, as seen in a nigh number of murals, graffiti and commemoration plaques. These memorials have a double function. On the one hand, they help construct a collective memory of the past, in as much as they ‘represent' given historical events. On the other, they (de)legitimise those historical events, which are not only recalled but also reconstructed. In those (re-)constructions, given facts may be prioritized or hidden, and actors involved in them may be portrayed in very different ways. The relation between both functions can be understood by looking at the language - and images - that are used, in as much as they have a mediating function which entails accessing history from a particular point of view, which is, in turn, related to the legitimising function of those memorials. In this article, we intend to look at the linguistic strategies that are used in two sets of commemoration plaques found in Belfast.
Achugar, M. (2008). What we remember. The construction of memory in military discourse. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Alonso, R. (2001). Irlanda del Norte. Una historia de guerra y la gúsqueda de la paz. Madrid: Complutense.
Anderson, B. (1991). Imagined Communities. Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso.
Berger, P. and Luckman, T. (1966). The social construction of reality: A treatise in the sociology of Kknowledge. New York: Anchor Books.
Billig, M. (1995). Banal Nationalism. London: Sage.
Cap, P. (2006). Legitimisation in political discourse: A cross-disciplinary perspective on the modern US war rhetoric. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Press.
Cap, P. (2010). Proximizing objects, proximizing values. Towards an axiological contribution to the discourse of legitimization. In U. Okulska and P. Cap (eds.), Perspectives in politics and discourse. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. pp. 119-142.
Charteris-Black, J. (2005). Politicians and rhetoric. The persuasive power of metaphor. Basingtoke: Palgrave-MacMillan.
Chilton, P. (2004). Analysing political discourse. Theory and practice. London: Routledge.
Coogan, T. P. (2002). The IRA. New York: Palgrave.
Dunn, S. and Dawson, H. (2000). An alphabetical listing of word, name and place in Northern Ireland and the living language of conflict. New York: Edwin Mellen.
Elliott, S. and Flackes, W. D. (1999). Northern Ireland. A Political Directory. 1968-1999. Belfast: Blackstaff.
Fairclough, N. (1989). Language and Power. London: Longman.
Goatly, A. (2007). Washing the Brain: Metaphor and hidden ideology. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Halliday, M.A.K. (2004). An Introduction to Functional Grammar. Revised by Matthiessen, C., 3rd ed. London: Arnold.
Kövecses, Z. (2002). Metaphor. A practical introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lakoff, G. and Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors we live by. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Langacker, R. W. (2008). Cognitive grammar. A basic introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Levinson, S. C. (1987). Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
McBride, I. (2001). History and memory in modern Ireland. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
McDonald, H. (2004). Remember the Horrors. The Observer¸ 22nd Aug. Available from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2004/aug/22/northernireland.northernireland [Accessed 30/05/11].
McDowell, S. (2007). Remembering: Victims, survivors and commemoration. Introduction to Commemoration, and to Commemoration in Northern Ireland. Available from: http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/victims/memorials/smcd07commemoration.html [Accessed 30/05/11]
Melaugh, M. (2007). A chronology of the conflict. 1968 to present. [WWW] CAIN. Available from: http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/othelem/chron/ch70.htm [Accessed 30/05/2011]
Roe, M.; Pegg, W.; Hodges, K.; and Trimm, R.. (1999). Forgiving the Other Side: Social Identity and Ethnic Memories in Northern Ireland. In J. P. Harrington and E. J. Mitchell (eds.), Politicis and Performance in Contemporary Northern Ireland. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. pp. 122-156.
Rolston, B. (2010). Drawing support. Murals in the North of Ireland. 2nd ed. Belfast: Beyond the Pale.
Schacter, D. (1996). Searching for memory. The brain, the mind, and the past. New York: Basic Books.
Switzer, C. (2005). Conflict Commemoration Amongst Protestants in Northern Ireland. In G. J. Ashworth and B. Graham (eds.), Senses of Place: Senses of Time. Aldershot: Ashgate. pp. 119-132.
Van Dijk, T. A. (2000). Ideology. A multidisciplinary approach. London: Sage.
Van Leeuwen, T. (2007). Legitimation in discourse and communication. Discourse and Communication 1(1): 91-112.
Van Leeuwen, T. and Wodak, R. (1999). Legitimizing immigration control: A discourse-historical approach. Discourse Studies 1(1): 83-118.
Whyte, J. (1991). Interpreting Northern Ireland. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wodak, R. (2006). History in the making/The making of history. Journal of Language and Politics 5(1): 125-154.